CHOQELA

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Choqela de San Juan de Aracachi
Choqelas y guirnaldas de San Juan de Aracachi / Zepita, luciendo en el estadio Enrique Torres Belón (Puno-Candelaria 1987)

El arquetipo mismo de «Choqela» surge de una abstracción arraigada en lo más profundo del imaginario conceptual Aymara, que se vuelve palabra por medio de la combinación de dos sintagmas considerados sagrados en ese dominio cultural:
Chuqui (Lanza) + Illa (objeto mágico/riqueza guardada) = Chuqila / Choqela y, en esta esfera, su significado podría libremente traducirse en «Rayo fecundador»…
Mas, calado en la dimensión humana, el mismo término “Choqela” (o Lari lari) califica a gente cimarrona que vive en la puna, sin reconocer caciques y sustentándose con la caza*.

“Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara” (1612) – Giovanni Ludovico Bertonio (1557 Rocca Contrada, Ancona, Italia / 1625 Lima, Perú)

De estos conceptos se sirve el mundo Aymara desde tiempos inmemoriales… siendo dichos conceptos en haber generado la Música del “Choqela” y no el contrario.

De hecho, en los más remotos recodos de su historia, el Jaq’e le confirió “sonido” a esta abstracción: una “voz” que de pronto la volvió real, sensible y asequible…
Desde entonces es posible catar el “Choqela” -quintaesencia de la filosofía Tiwanacota- de modo que llegó a penetrar nuestros jóvenes oídos allá por 1980.
Entonces identificamos en la solución de su enigma sonoro la llave para acceder a la matriz estética de la Qena. Fue así como el Choqela se volvió de pronto uno de los ejes centrales de la investigación de Trencito de los Andes con huellas grabadas ya desde «Yawar Fiesta» (1983), aunque los primeros éxitos de esta larga búsqueda en ámbito tradicional fueron cosechados solo seis años después; publicados en «Continente Líquido» y «Proyecto Pariwana»; luego trascendidos en la Suite “Thunderbeings” que introduce «Indianshadows» (1994) y finalmente sublimados por Il Laboratorio delle Uova Quadre en su primer disco «Opera Selvaggia» (2009), bajo el título <Choqe + Illa = Fórmula Hermética>.

Pues, a un ojo inexperto o a una oreja distraída, aquellas flautas -que se ven todas iguales- por cierto han de tocar todas lo mismo!!! Pese a que su propia praxis demuestre que así no es… ¡O tú escuchas un unísono?

La siguiente pregunta es:
¿Entonces de donde sale toda la polifonía que desprende un Choqela?
Descartada la copresencia de partes distintas (en forma de Duo, Trío o Cuarteto etc.) -siendo la mencionada polifonía intrínseca al unísono- la única solución restante era contemplar la posibilidad de la emisión de diferentes sonidos (armónicos) mediante una misma “pisada” (digitación).
Conque el primer paso fue captar/aislar la linea melódica de base -discretamente celada entre tantas ambigüedades acústicas- y el siguiente, aprender a producir intencionalmente las voces y coros del Choqela -así sean naturales, mudos o multifónicos– con una misma flauta entre las manos, así como también los característicos puentes digitales que barquean el buen intérprete desde una nota a otra, según el dejo propio del estilo, que jamás traiciona los férreos dictámenes de la Octava Circular Aymara.

Más adelante, intentando “ordenar” la coralidad de una ejecución colectiva, llegué a dividir el Corpus Aéreo de un conjunto Choqela en los siguientes bloques instrumentales: Guía, Contra Guía, Silvadores y Tropa.

NB: Los nombres que utilizo para abrir nuevos espacios conceptuales en el ámbito de una tropa de Choqelas son -como cualquier “palabra”- “representaciones” de hechos reales, acuñadas por mi en el transcurso de los años.

Por otro lado es importante destacar que la Qena-Choqela (en tanto instrumento musical) llegó a una verdadera síntesis organológica solo en el altiplano Boliviano: Flor de Cantuta [Track 13 / 5° Disco], Cervecita Blanca, Mi Nombre Cholita [Tracks 18 y 20 / 5° Disco]… los de Viacha [Track 10 / 3° Disco] o de Colquencha [Track 10 / 4° Disco] etc… son de allí (tal como detallado en las respectivas carátulas de “Continente Líquido”).

En cambio, como puede apreciarse siempre en la misma colección -Choqelas de San Juan de Aracachi [Tracks 2 y 3 / 2° Disco] Litipulis Choqelas de Mocaraya [Tracks 9 y 10 / 5° Disco]- en Perú dicha morfología aún se presta a algunas variantes.

La razón de ello se debe en parte a la actual división política de los antiguos señoríos Qollas en cuatro naciones distintas (Perú, Chile, Argentina y Bolivia).
Pues, aunque pocos lo mencionen, es precisamente la segregación de los Aymaras Peruanos, Chilenos y Argentinos de su propia cuna cultural Tiwanacota la que contribuyó en originar toda una serie de fenómenos musicales (locales) sumamente interesantes.

De hecho los hermanos de sangre del “Alto Perú” -más compactos en su territorio- fueron estabilizando y sintetizando una forma “físico-acústica” tanto para la Música como también para el instrumento Choqela, reduciendo así la infinidad de variables contemplada por el plano conceptual a un claro repertorio interpretable en grupos de una misma flauta, en pos de una difusión masiva a lo largo de su porción de altiplano.

Fue así como las Hermandades Choqela empezaron a inundar las altipampas de La Paz; mientras que en la República Virreynal las mismas Confraternitas quedaron aisladas… tanto que allí, al día de hoy, todavía responden al nombre de “Choqela” una variedad de Músicas y otras tantas especies de Qenas distintas.
En el altiplano Peruano es aún el “concepto” que manda: «Choqela», una de las columnas fundacionales del universo Qolla.

Raffaele M. Clemente / Felice M. Clemente
Il Laboratorio delle Uova Quadre

Choqela
Tabla Musical extraída del libro “La Simpa” – Felice M. Clemente

CHOQELAS DE MACHACA (Original)
La nostra cancha
E’ appartata
Dove finisce il bosco
Bianca
Vergine di velluto
E fredda
Noi la percorriamo tutta
Da porta a porta
Lasciando profonde
Le nostre impronte
Da porta a porta
Col sangue in bocca
Il fiato mozzo
Le dita lente suonano
I flauti gocciolano
Condensa
Il sony portatile
Abbandonato sospeso
In fondo al campo
Registra:
Echi attutiti di wancaras
Si sdoppiano a distanza
Sono tonfi
Sordi i nostri passi
Nel silenzio scricchiolante
Dello sciogliersi
Di neve a gocce
Vola il suono del choqela
Come un corvo
Nero sulla cancha
Scioglie
alla neve attenta
Aspro
Epico canto

Felice M. Clemente

Choqela
Danza Choqela (Detalle) Felice M. Clemente

CHOQELAS DE MACHACA (Castellano)
Nuestra cancha
Queda apartada
Donde termina el bosque
Blanca
Virgen de terciopelo
Y fría
Nosotros la recorremos toda
De arco a arco
Dejando profundas
Nuestras huellas
De arco a arco
Con la sangre en la boca
El aliento entrecortado
Los dedos lentos tocan
Las flautas gotean
Aire condensado
El sony portátil
Abandonado suspendido
Al fondo de la cancha
Graba:
Ecos atenuados de wancaras
Redoblan a la distancia
Son batacazos
Sordos nuestros pasos
En el silencio crujiente
Del licuarse
De nieve en gotas
Vuela la vóz del choqela
Como cuervo
Negro sobre la cancha
Suelta
Para la nieve atenta
Áspero
Épico canto

Post Data: Poema inspirado en una “Actividad” desarrollada en Castellino delle Formiche.

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