«QENA» Y “QUENA”

Posted on Posted in discografía

Paralleli
El simple observar una misma realidad (por ej. la del Orquestín Cusqueño) desde un mínimo de dos ópticas distintas, de por sí, sitúa el objeto de la análisis en una nueva ubicación: en un “Punto Intermedio”.

Escribe A. [… el interés que ustedes demuestran en la música que desarrollan por los orquestines de mi tierra, me encendió muchas esperanzas de contar con vuestra participación dentro de un proyecto musical… ]

Por parte nuestra, estamos interesados en toda “Seria Labor” que se quiera realizar alrededor de esta Música. Sobretodo si dicha labor se propone impulsarla, empezando -obviamente- por “Valorarla” (es decir: “cobrar profundamente conciencia de ella”).

En este sentido, la “Escuela” es una de las formas más difundidas y comunes para perseguir este tipo de objetivos. Sin embargo, es importante aclarar que las escuelas pueden ser muy diferentes entre ellas: más allá de lo que esta genérica denominación (Escuela) deja suponer.

Hay Escuelas para todos los niveles… y cada una de ellas maneja un determinado tipo de conocimiento. Obviamente, la Escuela que nos interesa a nosotros es de tipo “no convencional”. 

Sobre este punto tendríamos que conversar detenidamente hasta entendernos bien.

Sin embargo – a manera de cortar camino- te proponemos un texto, dedicado a la «Qena», que expone muy concretamente el tipo de conocimiento que nos interesa manejar:

Chojñaqenaqena»MNCP / A. Guillén – Danzantes y ejecutantes de Qena Qena – Juli, Puno (s.f.)

… Disponer de un instrumento afinado con los documentos sonoros es muy util… Siempre y cuando sea verdaderamente así!
Pero esto se puede comprobar sin mucho esfuerzo.
Con respecto a la distancia entre los orificios, te confirmo que – a diferencia de las “Quenas Profesionales” – en las «Qenas» estos son equidistantes por vocación. 

La razón por la cual los orificios de las “Quenas Profesionales” tienen distancias y dimensiones distintas es muy simple:

Pues, teniendo que interpretar “todo tipo” de Música, ellas tienen que producir “naturalmente” (sin medios dedos ni posiciones absurdas) una escala diatónica y tonal.

Es por eso que, en la historia de la “Quena Profesional”, el primer paso fue “oficializar” su tonalidad de acuerdo al concepto tonal imperante occidental… Entonces primero se estableció que la «Qena» era un instrumento en [Sol Mayor].

A raíz de ello, la posición “todo tapado” tenía que producir la tónica: un [Sol]… y, a partir de ahí, desarrollar “naturalmente” una escala mayor en esa misma tonalidad.

Para obviar el problema de la exagerada distancia (en centímetros) entre el [Sol todo tapado] y el [La] (primer orificio abierto), se recurrió al nudo natural de la caña (material escogido originariamente para la construcción de la “Quena Profesional”).

Quena

Nudo Natural

Es decir que una “Quena Profesional” sin nudo en realidad produciría un [Sol #]… Si no fuera por el nudo vegetal que cierra ulteriormente el desahogue del aire y baja el sonido hasta [Sol Natural].

Mas, a penas se abre un orificio cualquiera (por ej. el primero: [La]), el nudo ya no representa la primera y única posibilidad de salida para la columna de aire que se forma al interno del instrumento al tocarlo… Pues, el aire sale por el primer “Exit” que encuentra!

Lo que estoy diciendo es que si el primer orificio de una “Quena Profesional” tuviera las mismas dimensiones del cuarto [Re], del Quinto [Mi] o del Sexto [Fa#], el sonido que saldría sería un [La #]… Esa es la razón por la cual, en las “Quenas Profesionales”, el primer orificio tiene generalmente las mismas dimensiones del tercero [Do].

Al mismo tiempo, esa es la razón por la cual, si cortas un tubo “abierto” (sin nudo) que produce un [Sol Natural] y tratas de abrir un primer orificio a distancia de “un tono” [La]… Este último te saldrá muy lejos de la base del instrumento!

Ergo: en realidad, el primer orificio de una “Quena Profesional” responde a las exigencias de un intervalo de “medio tono”…

Por eso el orificio es relativamente “cercano” al borde de la flauta y “pequeño”.

Desde luego, viene el segundo orificio [Si]. Pero ahora el intervalo buscado es de “tono entero” [La > Si]… y tampoco podemos alejarnos mucho del primer orificio [La] por obvias razones de “comodidad interpretativa”!

Esa es la razón por la cual el segundo orificio [Si] de una “Quena Profesional” es el orificio más grande de todos: pues, tiene que alcanzar el “tono entero” sin alejarse demasiado del primer orificio [La].

Ahora, entre el [Si] (segundo orificio) y el [Do] (tercer orificio) se produce el “problema”: el primer intervalo de medio tono declarado!

Para obtener este nuevo resultado, se busca “acercar” (que, en términos flautísticos, equivale a “bajar”) el tercer orificio hacia el segundo.

¿Ahora entiendes porqué, en una “Quena Profesional”, el segundo y el tercer orificio “son como son”?

Después del tercer orificio [Do], en la Quena Profesional se pasa a la otra mano (la izquierda)… El cuarto, quinto y sexto orificio son generalmente equidistantes y de iguales dimensiones puesto que, entre ellos, el intervalo deseado es siempre el mismo: “tono entero”.

Y finalmente se llega al único orificio posterior: el [Sol] (dedo pulgar).

El séptimo orificio [Sol] propone el mismo problema del tercero [Do]: otra vez un intervalo de “medio tono”… otra vez un agujero pequeño como el primero [La] y el tercero [Do].

Estas son las “razones” del “diapasón” de una “Quena Profesional”.

A este punto es importante considerar dos factores:

1°) – Tanto más pequeño será un orificio, cuanto más suave sonará la nota obtenida y… viceversa!

2°) – Tanto más gruesa será la columna de aire, cuanto más fuerte sonará el instrumento y… viceversa!

A raíz de ello las “Quenas Profesionales” son siempre más gruesas y sus huecos cada vez más grandes!!! Pues, parece que con el pasar del tiempo las exigencias musicales y artísticas de los “Profesionales” de la “Música Andina” han ido creciendo desaforadamente,
pero sobretodo en cuanto a… ¡¡¡Volumen!!!

En conclusión, la “Quena Profesional” es un instrumento aún desequilibrado y, en muchos casos, algo tosco en su morfología…

Quena profesional

Quena Profesional”

La «Qena», en cambio, es un instrumento musical que alcanzó un alto nivel de evolución expresado en su increíble síntesis.

La «Qena» (como el «Sicu») es, de hecho, todo un mapa esotérico con todas las soluciones expuestas… Claro, solo para quien esté capacitado en descifrarlas!

La escala “equitonal” de la «Qena» es una de las pocas escalas al mundo que resuelven brillantemente todas las “impasses” que presenta la octava… Pues, la disposición equidistante y homodimensional de los orificios -a menudo percibida como un rasgo primitivo- más bien parece el fruto de un largo y profundo viaje evolutivo.

En la «Qena», hasta la misma repartición de los dedos es diferente con respecto a la “Quena Profesional”.

Pues, entre estos dos instrumentos -y, por lógica consecuencia: entre las dos Músicas que tañen- la distancia es tan grande… que no podríamos razonablemente hablar de un mismo instrumento…

En la «Qena», los semitonos no existen… Pues, a raíz de la naturaleza de su escala, estos resultan inútiles, superados a priori.

En la «Qena», las pisadas irregulares no tienen razón de ser… Pues, la misma repartición de los dedos resuelve hasta el problema (¡Común en todas las flautas del mundo!) de sostener el instrumento en determinadas posiciones como el “todo abierto”!

En la «Qena», no hay tercera octava… Pues, la utilización de sus registros armónicos la vuelve obsoleta.

En la «Qena», el control del sonido… El equilibrio volumétrico entre primera y segunda octava… La “calidad” en términos de riqueza armónica… Las posibilidades expresivas ofrecidas… La increíble comodidad (sin precedentes) de ejecutar Música en “SEIS TONALIDADES” distintas (Am/C+-Em/G+-Hm/D+) sin tener que enfrentar “ni un solo semitono”… etcétera… etcétera…

Todo esto (¡Y muuucho mássss!) hace que consideremos la «Qena» un instrumento musical de orden superior.

Duo Qenas

Duo de «Qenas» equitonales de bronce. Eliseo Arque Ccanchi y Valentín Navarro Ccanchi de Checacupe (Canchis-Cuzco / Perú)

Bueno, ojalá que este pequeño escrito pueda ayudarnos a encuadrar mejor un común rumbo y sus eventuales Metas…

 

«Il Laboratorio delle Uova Quadre»

44 thoughts on “«QENA» Y “QUENA”

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